jeudi 30 octobre 2014

1914 : la mobilisation des nationalistes arméniens par la Russie tsariste

Michael A. Reynolds, Shattering Empires : The Clash and Collapse of the Ottoman and Russian Empires 1908-1918, New York, Cambridge University Press, 2011, p. 115-117 :

"While ambassadors and ministers in Istanbul and St. Petersburg were busily, if somewhat disingenuously, trading and proffering plans for peace and good intentions to forestall the onset of war, in the borderlands hostility had been building steadily. The region remained uneasy in the wake of the Bitlis rebellion, and the recognition that with the Armenian Reform Program it was slipping out of Ottoman control kept tensions at a high level. Kurds in Anatolia and Iran continued to conduct raids, and the Dashnaktsutiun urged Armenians to arm. In June, a delegation of Ottoman Assyrians asked the Russian vice-consul in Urmia for 35,000 rifles, promising that they were prepared to rise up at the Russians’command in the likely event of a war.

As Russian suspicion of Ottoman dealings with Germany grew through August, so did interest in mobilizing anti-Ottoman elements inside the empire. In line with Minorskii’s advice to split non-Turkish groups from the center, Sazonov in mid August agreed with Vorontsov-Dashkov that the Kurds, Armenians, and Assyrians would be of great use in a war. Consular and military intelligence reports predicted that the Ottoman Armenian and Assyrian communities would assist an invading Russian force and described large numbers of Kurds as sympathetic toward Russia.

With a Russian army of some 300,000 mobilized on the Caucasian border, Ottoman authorities found the sympathies and activities of the Armenians worrisome. This gave rise to fearful speculation. Rumors circulated that Armenian revolutionaries were sending their families into Russia – an ambiguous act but one that officials interpreted as a sign of impending rebellion. From the Caucasus came reports of Vorontsov-Dashkov’s feting of Armenian leaders and of Armenian gangs threatening
Muslims with vengeance for the massacres of 1895. Istanbul instructed its officials in the region to investigate these rumors. The governor of Van reported that not only had no Armenian families left, but the Dashnaks were assisting the government with conscription and that Armenian feeling toward Russia was ambivalent. Authorities in Trabzon, too, related that, contrary to rumors, no Armenian families had left the province for Russia. In his report of 20 August the deputy governor of Erzurum on the one hand questioned the sincerity of Armenian promises to take up arms for the empire but on the other hand noted that the town’s Armenians were maintaining cordial relations with their Muslim neighbors. Five days later, however, Erzurum’s gendarmerie confirmed that Russian Armenians in the town were sending their families back across the border to Aleksandropol. Three Russian soldiers who defected at the end of August explained that Armenian activists were conducting anti-Turkish propaganda among Russian soldiers and distributing arms to their compatriots along the border. In late September Enver informed the command of the Ottoman Third Army that Hnchak and Dashnak revolutionaries had agreed with the Russians to provoke Ottoman Armenians to rebel.

Enver and other Unionists were not averse to the idea of trying to turn the Armenians against the Russians. Just as the Dashnaktsutiun was wrapping up its eighth congress in Erzurum, a delegation of Unionists led by Dr. Bahaeddin Sakir arrived to propose an alliance. In exchange for inciting a rebellion inside Russia the Dashnaks would receive an autonomous Armenia consisting of Russian Armenia and several districts around Erzurum, Van, and Bitlis. The Unionists had thin credibility to begin with and, given their commitment to centralized rule, the sudden offer of autonomy probably struck the revolutionaries as fantastic. The Dashnaks declined the offer, diplomatically explaining that Armenians on either side of the border should stay loyal to their respective governments.

On the eastern side of that border, Vorontsov-Dashkov had been urging the arming and mobilization of Ottoman Armenians, Assyrians, and Kurds. Sazonov, not wishing to provoke the Ottomans, initially held off. But on 20 September, convinced that war with the Ottomans was inevitable, he approved Vorontsov-Dashkov’s request to arm the Ottoman Armenians and “provoke their uprising at an opportune moment.” The Armenian National Council cooperated with the government to establish four volunteer regiments, known as druzhiny, to serve in an invasion. Some prominent Ottoman Armenians, such as former member of the Ottoman parliament Karekin Pastermaciyan (Pastermajian), also known by his revolutionary moniker “Armen Garo,” joined the regiments. Others declined, predicting that the formation of such regiments would put the safety of Ottoman Armenians at great risk. Nonetheless, hundreds of Ottoman Armenians in the fall began crossing into Russia and Iran to take up arms. Among them was Ruben Mığırdıçyan, the pharmacist who had earlier with Ottoman support carried out attacks on Russians in Iran."

Voir également : Les volontaires arméniens de l'armée russe : des criminels de guerre

1912-1914 : la réactivation du thème de l'"autonomie arménienne" et les velléités de la Russie tsariste sur les vilayet d'Anatolie orientale

Les motivations avouées d'un "Arménien de marque" engagé dans les armées de l'Entente en 1914 (soit bien avant la déportation de l'été 1915) : "des crimes sans nombre", "l'anéantissement systématique de notre peuple", "il faut que la Turquie disparaisse pour toujours"

Automne-hiver 1914-1915 : le rôle militaire décisif des belligérants arméniens, d'après la presse française

1914-1915 : la volonté de collaboration de la FRA-Dachnak avec l'Entente et contre l'Empire ottoman

Les nationalistes arméniens, des idiots-utiles de l'expansionnisme russo-tsariste

La politique arménienne de la Russie tsariste

La dépopulation des arrières du front russo-turc durant la Première Guerre mondiale
Le massacre massif des Kurdes par les Arméniens de l'armée russe durant la Première Guerre mondiale

Le massacre des Kurdes par les Arméniens et Assyriens

Les massacres arméno-russes de musulmans en Anatolie

Quelques figures de l'activisme/terrorisme arménien